Superpulsed laser irradiation increases osteoblast activity via modulation of bone morphogenetic factors

Superpulsed laser irradiation increases osteoblast activity via modulation of bone morphogenetic factors.

Saracino S, Mozzati M, Martinasso G, Pol R, Canuto RA, Muzio G.

Department of Experimental Medicine and Oncology, University of Turin, Corso Raffaello 30, 10125 Turin, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Laser therapy is a new approach applicable in different medical fields when bone loss occurs, including orthopedics and dentistry. It has also been used to induce soft-tissue healing, for pain relief, bone, and nerve regeneration. With regard to bone synthesis, laser exposure has been shown to increase osteoblast activity and decrease osteoclast number, by inducing alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein expression. Studies have investigated the effects of continuous or pulsed laser irradiation, but no data are yet available on the properties of superpulsed laser irradiation. This study thus aimed to investigate the effect of superpulsed laser irradiation on osteogenic activity of human osteoblast-like cells, paying particular attention to investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of this type of laser radiation.

STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were exposed to 3, 7, or 10 superpulsed laser irradiation (pulse width 200 nanoseconds, minimum peak power 45 W, frequency 30 kHz, total energy 60 J, exposure time 5 minutes). The following parameters were evaluated: cell growth and viability (light microscopy, lactate dehydrogenase release), calcium deposits (Alizarin Red S staining), expression of bone morphogenetic factors (real-time PCR).

RESULTS:

Superpulsed laser irradiation decreases cell growth, induces expression of TGF-beta2, BMP-4, and BMP-7, type I collagen, ALP, and osteocalcin, and increases the size and the number of calcium deposits. The stimulatory effect is maximum on day 10, that is, after seven applications.

CONCLUSIONS:

Reported results show that superpulsed laser irradiation, like the continuous and pulsed counterparts, possesses osteogenic properties, inducing the expression of molecules known to be important mediators of bone formation and, as a consequence, increasing calcium deposits in human MG-63 cells. Moreover, the data suggest a new potential role for PPARgamma as a regulator of osteoblast proliferation.

Low-level laser irradiation enhances BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation by stimulating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway

Low-level laser irradiation enhances BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation by stimulating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway.

Hirata S, Kitamura C, Fukushima H, Nakamichi I, Abiko Y, Terashita M, Jimi E.

Division of Molecular Signaling and Biochemistry, Department of Biosciences, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580, Japan.

Abstract

Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has been shown to induce bone formation and osteoblast differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. However, the molecular mechanism by which LLLI stimulates osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Ga-Al-As laser irradiation could enhance BMP2-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in C2C12 cells. Laser irradiation at 0.5 W for 20 min enhanced BMP2-induced ALP activity. Laser treatment alone did not affect ALP activity. To exclude the effect of pH or temperature changes during irradiation, we shortened the exposure time to 2 min, with various levels of laser power. At 2.5 W, irradiation stimulated BMP2-induced ALP activity but not cell proliferation, whereas 1 or 5 W laser power did not induce any significant effects. Irradiation stimulated BMP2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and BMP2 expression, but had no effect on the expression of inhibitory Smads 6 and 7, BMP4, or insulin-like growth factor 1. Laser irradiation enhanced Smad-induced Id1 reporter activity as well as expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced transcription factors such as Id1, Osterix, and Runx2. Laser irradiation also stimulated BMP-induced expressions of type I collagen, osteonectin, and osteocalcin mRNA, markers of osteoblasts. This enhancement of BMP2-induced ALP activity and Smad phosphorylation by laser irradiation was also observed in primary osteoblasts. These results suggest that LLLI accelerates the differentiation of BMP-induced osteoblasts by stimulating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway.

Effect of multiple exposures of low-level laser therapy on the cellular responses of wounded human skin fibroblasts

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Dec;24(6):705-14.

Effect of multiple exposures of low-level laser therapy on the cellular responses of wounded human skin fibroblasts.

Hawkins D, Abrahamse H.

Laser Research Unit, Group of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study aimed to establish the behavior of wounded human skin fibroblasts (HSF) after heliumneon (HeNe) (632.8 nm) laser irradiation using one, two, or three exposures of different doses, namely, 2.5, 5.0, or 16.0 J/cm(2) on each day for 2 consecutive days.

BACKGROUND DATA:

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a form of phototherapy used to promote wound healing in different clinical conditions. LLLT at than adequate wavelength, intensity, and dose can accelerate tissue repair. However, there is still conflicting information about the effect of multiple irradiations on the cellular responses of wounded cells.

METHODS:

Cellular responses to HeNe laser irradiation were evaluated by measuring changes in cell morphology, cell viability, cell proliferation, and damage caused by multiple irradiations.

RESULTS:

A single dose of 5.0 J/cm(2), and two or three doses of 2.5 J/cm(2) had a stimulatory or positive effect on wounded fibroblasts with an increase in cell migration and cell proliferation while maintaining cell viability, but without causing additional stress or damage to the cells. Multiple exposures at higher doses (16 J/cm(2)) caused additional stress, which reduces cell migration, cell viability, and ATP activity, and inhibits cell proliferation.

CONCLUSION:

The results show that the correct energy density or fluence (J/cm(2)) and number of exposures can stimulate cellular responses of wounded fibroblasts and promote cell migration and cell proliferation by stimulating mitochondrial activity and maintaining viability without causing additional stress or damage to the wounded cells. Results indicate that the cumulative effect of lower doses (2.5 or 5 J/cm(2)) determines the stimulatory effect, while multiple exposures at higher doses (16 J/cm(2)) result in an inhibitory effect with more damage.

PMID: 17199470 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Photobiomodulation of pain in carpal tunnel syndrome: review of seven laser therapy studies

Photobiomodulation of pain in carpal tunnel syndrome: review of seven laser therapy studies.

Naeser MA.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02130, USA. mnaeser@bu.edu

Abstract

In this review, seven studies using photoradiation to treat carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are discussed: two controlled studies that observed real laser to have a better effect than sham laser, to treat CTS; three openprotocol studies that observed real laser to have a beneficial effect to treat CTS; and two studies that did not observe real laser to have a better effect than a control condition, to treat CTS. In the five studies that observed beneficial effect from real laser, higher laser dosages (9 Joules, 12-30 Joules, 32 J/cm(2), 225 J/cm(2)) were used at the primary treatment sites (median nerve at the wrist, or cervical neck area), than dosages in the two studies where real laser was not observed to have a better effect than a control condition (1.8 Joules or 6 J/cm(2)). The average success rate across the first five studies was 84% (SD, 8.9; total hands = 171). The average pain duration prior to successful photoradiation was 2 years. Photoradiation is a promising new, conservative treatment for mild/moderate CTS cases (motor latency < 7 msec; needle EMG, normal). It is cost-effective compared to current treatments.